Hand: beta, Exeter 3500

Exeter 3500

beta - EXON Project

This hand may be recognised by its stable and distinctive nature; showing collaborations, ex.: likeness with ‘eta’ (master/amanuensis relationship?); blockiness (rho); finishing strokes on the baseline (r, s –diagonal–); minims with approach and finishing strokes; rotund and English-looking?; very vertical down-stroke in –orum which descends below the baseline as far as above.

1. Letterforms

a.- Pointed form in which its back very rarely goes over the often triangular bowl; looping tail (occasionally long) at word end. a, Caroline. beta a, Caroline. beta a, Caroline. beta a, Caroline. beta a, Caroline. beta a, Caroline. beta a, Caroline. beta

d.- Both straight and round-backed forms in use. The former shows an ascender which is about 1mm high and often (but not always) has a triangular notch to the left (approach stroke). The ascender is occasionally seen leaning to the right too. The round form shows a straight, vertical ascender which is as high as that of the straight form – 1mm. d, Caroline. beta d, Caroline. beta d, Caroline. beta d, Caroline. beta d, Insular. beta d, Insular. beta

e.- Round back and projecting tongue which looks almost flat. Lower compartment barely rises from baseline. e. beta e. beta

g.- 8-shaped g with round and closed tail. Its roundness may be less prominent as it occasionally acquires a more angular shape. Also, at times the tail is separated from the head by a short neck. g, Caroline. beta g, Caroline. beta g, Caroline. beta g, Caroline. beta g, Caroline. beta

h.- Left leg stands footed on the baseline while the right one may tuck in but it only occasionally reaches below the baseline. Ascender shows wedge on the left (approach stroke) and is about double minim height (2mm). h, Caroline. beta h, Caroline. beta

p.- Approach stroke on the left, descender is between 1-2mm long and often footed by a finishing stroke. Occasionally, lobe may remain open on top (as seen in b). p. beta

s.- Either standing on the line or just going beyond slightly. It normally shows a foot in the form of a finishing stroke to the left. Head is not normally completely round and it often shows a slopping stroke from the hood upwards. It may even seem flat. s, Caroline. beta s, Caroline. beta

t.- Curved shaft does not cross the horizontal stroke. t. beta

x.- Equal-limbed form, though left leg may occasionally reach below the baseline. x. beta x. beta x. beta

æ.-.Not found.

2. Treatment of minims, ascenders & descenders

Minims .- About 1mm high, showing approach and finishing (feet) strokes. i. beta

Ascenders.- About twice minim height. In average, just under 2mm. They normally have an approach stroke that forms a triangular wedge on the left which may give them a forked appearance.

Descenders.- About twice minim height. In average, just about 2mm. Occasionally footed by a finishing stroke (both p and q).

3. Form of capitals

A. Uncial form made of two strokes. Main one (forming the head and back of the graph) is thicker and shows an approach stroke at the top and curls upwards after reaching the baseline. The second is much thinner and forms a triangular bowl which may occasionally be left open.

F. Top horizontal stroke curls upwards.

W. Made of two superimposed Vs in which the left arm is longer and curled (though it doesn’t necessarily reach much higher) and the right one is straight, has a small approach stroke and reaches just over the headline.

4. Forms of punctuation

Punctus simplex seems to be only form of punctuation in use.

5. Form of paraph (gallows mark)

Simple, 3-stroke form. T-shaped top stroke.

6. Forms of abbreviation

Ampersand.- Squat form. Rather small form (often smaller that minim height). Final stroke starts well below the headline and curls down towards the main body of the graph, although it very often does not touch it. Even so, the point of (potential) contact is often rather low (even at the very end on the diagonal stroke (26v7). &. beta &. beta &. beta &. beta &. beta &. beta &. beta &. beta &. beta &. beta

et nota.- Not used.

Overline.- Favoured in suspensions. Starts as a horizontal stroke before curling upwards into a hairline. abbrev. stroke. beta abbrev. stroke. beta abbrev. stroke. beta abbrev. stroke. beta abbrev. stroke. beta

-ur.- 2-shaped form where the final stroke remains horizontal, briefly curling upwards at the very end.

-us.- 9-shaped suspension mark out of synch with the words. It is written above the letter, not alongside it, and is separated from the main word by about 1-2mm.

-orum.- very vertical down-stroke which descends below the baseline as far as above.

q- forms.- qua with pointed a.

e cauda.- Triangular e-cauda and q-cauda. v-shaped tail bent to the right. This is also found in p-cauda.

pr- forms.- par with open a.

other forms.- -bus formed with a semi-colon with two components occasionally attached (27v12).


7. Forms of suspension

8. Ligatures

-ct- ligature: N/A.

-rt- ligature: N/A.

-st- ligature: s and t are ligatured. Rather narrow form. ligature. beta

-or-: N/A

9. Method and form of annotation (signes de renvoi?)

Interlinear additions.

10. Method of correction and correction mark

Erasure and writing over the line (27r7). Words crossed out and correct form written on top (val& reddit 36r8, 12, 20) [Same correction found all through this quire – Q.7]. Addition of missing letters or numerals in margin (36r8).

11. Treatment of numerals

Between dots (sometimes including ampersand). v instead of u.

12. Proportions and measurements


- Pricking.-

- Ruling.-

13. Other idiosyncrasies (preferred spellings, usages, …)

What does he write?

King (Do) – 25v20-8r20

King (Queen Matilda) (Do) – 29r1-v14 [opens quire]

St Peter of Cerne (Do) – 36r1-v1 [opens quire]; 37r9-10; 37r16-37v2; 38v7-20 [ends quire]

St Peter of Abbotsbury (Do) – 39r9-40v4

Abbot of Tavistock (Do) – 42r8-14

St Peter of Milton (Do) – 43r1-v1; 43v20-4v3

William de Moyon (Do) – 48r3-20; 49r13-20

Roger Arundel (Do) – 50r1-16 [opens quire]

Hugo fitzGrip’s wife (Do) – 57r16-19; 58r1-9; 58v4-9r1; 59v17-19

King (Dn) – 84r5-v4; 85r1-8; 85v15-6v12; 87v1-13

King (Dn) – 93r1-4r5 [opens quire]; 94v1-7; 96v3-7r10; 103v16-5v6; 106r5-7v9 [ends quire]

King (Queen Matilda) (Dn) – 108r1-v5 [opens quire]; 109r13-v9

King (Queen Eadgyth) (So) – 113r1-9 [opens quire]; 113v7; 114v20-15r3 [ends quire]

Bishop of Exeter (Dn) – 117r2-4 [opens quire]; 117v16-18r4; 118r13-18; 118v12-19r8; 120v17-20 [ends quire]; 199r2-13

Bishop of Coutances (Dn) – 123v16-4r14; 124v13-20 [ends quire]; 125r19-8r8; 128r14-31r11; 132v1-17; 135r1-6; 135v12-6r8

Bishop of Coutances (So) – 137r4-10; 139r3-40r19; 148r4-50v20 [ends quire]; 151r1-52r15

Bishop Osmund (So) – 154r15-v2 [ends quire]

Abbot of Glastonbury (So) – 161v13-8v19 [ends quire]; 170r18-v17

Abbot of Tavistock (Dn) – 177r1 [opens quire]; 177v12-19; 178v13-9r5; 179v17-80v3

Abbot of Buckfast (Dn) – 183r6-v15 [ends quire]

St Peter of Muchelney (So) – 189r13-v3 [ends quire]

St Peter of Athelney (So) – 191v13-20 [ends quire]

Saints (Dn) – 194r11-v11; 194v19-5r7; 196r2-3; 196r17-v8; 196v13-7r3; 197r10-v5; 198v1-2 [ends quire]

Count of Mortain (Dn) – 210r10-12v8; 212v13-13r19; 215r1-16v3; 217r17-v3; 219v19-22r9

Count of Mortain (Co) – 224r2-5v7; 234r1-241v [ends quire]; 242r1-43v20 [opens quire]; 247r1 [opens quire] – 54v20 [ends quire]; 262r9-v15; 264v1-5r2

Count of Mortain (So) – 266v8-7v20; 271v1-2v19; 278v1-81r18 [ends quire]

Count Eustace (So) – 282r1-v11 [opens quire]

Earl Hugh (Dn) – 286r14-20

Baldwin the Sheriff (Dn) – 288r1-90r9 [opens quire]; 291v11-14; 297r5-v22; 315r3-7

Baldwin the Sheriff (So) – 315r12-v10 [ends quire]

Judhael (Dn) – 316r2-12 [opens quire]; 318r4-v3; 320r3-3v18; 334v5-6

Ralph de La Pommeraye (Dn) – 336r13-17; 338v1-15; 339v18-40r15; 340r20-1r7; 341v13-20; 342r17-v13; 344r2-3

Ralph de La Pommeraye (So) – 344r4-11

Walscin de Douai (Dn) – 345r7-13; 347v8-14; 349v6-14

Walscin de Douai (So) – 350r1-v10; 352r8-v2

William de Moyon (So) – 356r9-v12: 357r7-60v5; 362v11-3r20; 363v6-13; 364r19-v17

William de Falaise (Dn) – 367v1-8v19

William de Falaise (So) – 369r6-18; 369v6-20 [ends quire]

Alfred d'Epaignes (So) – 372r4-3r3; 373v13-17; 374r7-v12; 374v17-5r4

Odo fitzGamelin (Dn) – 376r1-21 [opens quire]; 379r15-20

Odo fitzGamelin (So) – 380r1 [rubric]

Thurstan fitzRolf (Dn) – 382r1-9 [opens quire]

Thurstan fitzRolf (So) – 384v4

William fitzGuy (So) – 386r20-21 [ends quire]

Goscelm and Walter (Dn) – 388v9-9r3; 391r10-14; 391v12-20 [ends quire]; 392r1-10 [opens quire]; 392r18-v15

Goscelm and Walter (Co) – 397v1-6

William Nanny-Goat (Dn) – 399r1-v11 [opens quire]; 400v5-v20; 403r1-9 [opens quire]; 403v12-4r2; 405r9-14; 406r5-6 [ends quire]

Theobald fitzBerner (Dn) – 409r8-v6; 410v5-6 [ends quire]

Roald the dubbed (Dn) – 411r1-12 [opens quire]; 414r9-21

William de Poilley (Dn) – 415r2-v18; 416v17-17r2

Robert d'Aumale (Dn) – 419r1-v2 [opens quire]; 420r10-v14; 421r9-14

Roger de Courseulles (So) – 424v6-5v6; 426r11-13; 426v2-4; 430r8-21430v2; 431v20-2v15; 433r1-9; 433v12-4r3; 435v4-12

William d'Eu (So) – 438r6-12; 438v15-9r4

Roger Arundel (So) – 441r1-v13 [opens quire]; 442v6-8; 443r9-v9; 444r1-17

Osbern Giffard (So) – 447r7-16

Walter Giffard (So) – 447r16-22

Matthew de Mortagne (So) – 450r16-17

French Knights (Dn) – 456r1-19 [opens quire]; 457r10-15; 460r6-v4; 461v18-2r5; 462v7-8

French Knights (So) – 464v1-8; 466v1-5; 466v11-14

Nicholas the Crossbowman and Others (Dn) – 468r12-v3; 469r1-8; 472r4-v20; 473r7-12; 473r18-19

King’s Sergeants (Dn) – 475r1-8 [opens quire]; 476r11-v4

King’s Sergeants (So) – 477r1-8r13; 478v11-19; 479r7-10; 479r18-v16; 480r19-v8 [ends quire]

English Thegns (Dn) – 485r1-7; 487v12-8r1; 488r16-20 [ends quire]; 489r1-489r2 [opens quire]; 489v14-19

English Thegns (So) – 490v12-16; 491r17-v10; 491v17-22; 492r17-21

Terrae Occupatae (Dn) – 495v18-6r13; 505v11-13; 506r13-19

Geld Accounts (Dn) – 69v1-2

Geld Accounts (So) – 82r17-82v20

Dorset Boroughs – 11r2-12v10 [ends quire]

Hundred List (Dn) – in 63r13-21

Hundred List (Co) – in 63v7-10

Hundred List (So) – in 64r15-14

Other relevant information

a, Caroline

a, Caroline. beta

a, Caroline. beta

a, Caroline. beta

a, Caroline. beta

a, Caroline. beta

a, Caroline. beta

a, Caroline. beta
d, Angled-back

d, Insular. beta

d, Insular. beta
d, Caroline

d, Caroline. beta

d, Caroline. beta

d, Caroline. beta

d, Caroline. beta

e. beta

e. beta
f, Caroline

f, Caroline. beta

f, Caroline. beta

f, Caroline. beta
g, Caroline

g, Caroline. beta

g, Caroline. beta

g, Caroline. beta

g, Caroline. beta

g, Caroline. beta
h, Caroline

h, Caroline. beta

h, Caroline. beta

i. beta

p. beta
s, Caroline

s, Caroline. beta

s, Caroline. beta

t. beta

x. beta

x. beta

x. beta

&. beta

&. beta

&. beta

&. beta

&. beta

&. beta

&. beta

&. beta

&. beta

&. beta
Gallows Mark

Gallow Mark. beta

Gallow Mark. beta
overline, abbrev. stroke

abbrev. stroke. beta

abbrev. stroke. beta

abbrev. stroke. beta

abbrev. stroke. beta

abbrev. stroke. beta

ligature. beta