Hand: eta, Exeter 3500
- Exeter 3500
eta - EXON Project
a.- Round most often with back not normally going over bowl. In these cases, it shows a very short tail. In other (less frequent?) occasions, the shape is angular with its back going slightly over the bowl (which is triangular) and a short tail as finishing stroke.
d.-. Both straight and round backed forms in use. Straight-backed: rather small and round bowl and a straight ascender with a notch to the left. Round-backed: it has quite a short ascender which starts off almost horizontal (or at about 45º) before turning upwards. Ascender is flat and significantly shorter (minim height) than that of other shape of d. This round form is used much less frequently
e.- Broken back, which is almost vertical and lower section may be almost closed at word-end.
g.- Round head (sometimes broken) with a horizontal finishing stroke (sometimes curling upwards) which may ligature with the following letter. Tail is angular and either open or closed with distinctive 45º flattening. Same angle as et nota. It is not uncommon for it to be detached from its head (disjointed). Very peculiar shape of the tail found in some sections (eg. 146r or 172r): open and flat pointing downwards at about 45º. Not too dissimilar from the et nota.
h.- Left leg stands on the baseline and is footed by a finishing stroke; Right lg tucks in and reaches slightly below the baseline.
p.- Approach stroke and square, open bowl. Descender is simple and about double minim length. No foot used.
t.- Curved shaft does not go across the flat top.
x.- Equal-limbed and standing on the baseline.
æ.- Roughly same shape as ampersand. Only ‘potential’ difference lies on the fact that the projecting tongue on the e-component (final stroke) is thicker and attached to its eye. Similarly, the back of the a-component ends sharplyon the baseline, rather than showing a short horizontal tail, as seen n the ampersand. Tærenta (59r2, 59r11)
2. Treatment of minims, ascenders & descenders
Minims .- They may be rather thick. They a slight approach stroke or notch as well as feet formed by a finishing stroke. This is particularly visible in numerals.
Ascenders.- They tend to be straight and clubbed (l doesn’t seem to follow this pattern) and about double the minim size. At times they may appear forked, esp. h. The exception is round-backed d, which is particularly short.
3. Form of capitals
A. Rustic form in which the foot at the bottom of the left leg waves across to the right one. Right limb has a tail that normally ligatures to the following letterform.
I. Unlike with most other scribes, here it stands on the baseline and is footed by a cross-stroke at the bottom.
4. Forms of punctuation
Punctus simplex seems to be only form of punctuation in use.
5. Form of paraph (gallows mark)
Often decorated with some kind of foliate detail (esp. 25v12). Y-shape, turning to the left at foot with cross-stroke placed symmetrically on top. Sometimes two or more angled lines joining vertical and horizontal strokes. Overall they have a rather elaborate look. Occasionally, triangular form (86r, 146r)
6. Forms of abbreviation
Ampersand.- the ‘eye’ of the e-part is often open (or even entirely detached from the a-part) and the final stroke may vary in length and curl up (with approach stroke) or down (with an endstroke). Used within words.
et nota.- headline slopes slightly and shows an approach stroke which may render it a cup-shape. Even though the descender may be sometimes slightly curved backwards, it is often straight at 45º and finishes on an endstroke (slight rightward hook). Overall 7-like shape. It reaches below the baseline sometimes to the length of other descenders.
Overline.- Two forms of macron: the most common looks more like a tick (v-like form), esp. in 25r11-20; the second is cup-shaped. There doesn’t seem to be an obvious difference in use between them (unam mansionem, 39r2).
-ur.- 2-shaped mark is not too dissimilar from that of the overline: it looks like a tick with an approach stroke. Tail at 45º from horizontal.
-us.- 9-shaped suspension mark is normally left open and rests on the letter or ends very close. For –bus, b followed by two dots forming a colon.
pr- forms.- superscript a for pra has an ‘omega’ form.
other forms.- 7-shaped suspensions mark for –er, but also other suspensions.
7. Forms of suspension
-ct- ligature: Avoids -ct- ligature, but 30v9.
-rt- ligature: Peculiar form of -rt- ligature in which the second component begins with a hook or wavy approach stroke before forming the t. (30r12 and 13). Also seen in 520r1 (partibus) 523r15 (error? Turtinus for Turstinus?)
9. Method and form of annotation (signes de renvoi?)
Insertion mark is normally a long stroke leaning to the left (30r19 x2).
10. Method of correction and correction mark
11. Treatment of numerals
12. Proportions and measurements
13. Other idiosyncrasies (preferred spellings, usages, …)
What does he write?
King (Queen Matilda) (Do) – 30r10-v9
St Peter of Abbotsbury (Do) – 39r1-8 [opens quire]
St Peter of Milton (Do) – 43v1-8
Roger Arundel (Do) – 50v3-10
Walter de Claville (Do) – 62r1-62v17 [opens and ends quire]
King (Dn) – 107v9-12 [opens and ends quire]
King (Queen Eadgyth) (So) – 114r15-v9
Bishop Giso (So) – 156r1-v6 [opens quire]
St Peter of Bath (So) – 185r1-7r5 [opens and ends quire]
St Peter of Athelney (So) – 191r20-v12
Count of Mortain (Co) – 262v16
Alfred d'Epaignes (So) – 374v14-15
King’s Sergeants (So) – 479r11-17
English Thegns (So) – 492v15-3r1
Hundred List (So) – 64r15-v14 [with alpha and beta]
Previously unidentified stints (Flight)
Terrae Occupatae (So) – 524v13-15
Other relevant information
The switch between the two forms of the descender of g is quite peculiar as it doesn’t seem to follow any obvious rationale. As seen all across 146r, the two forms appear in close proximity to each other.